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Burden of proof, Burden of production 和 Burden of persuasion法律術語分析

發布時間: 2017-09-29 15:33:58   作者:etogether.net   來源: 網絡   瀏覽次數:
摘要: 粘貼出來Burden of proof, Burden of production 和 Burden of persuasion法律術語分析及英語解釋以供大家參考。


以上術語均和當事人對證據的責任相關,以往不少人將它們都籠統譯為“舉證責任”,其實那應算作一種錯誤,在英美法中,它們原本是有一定差異的。事實上,burden of proof應為“證明責任”(其也稱為onus probandi),其包含有burden of production和burden of persuasion兩術語的含義,即既“舉證”,又“說服”。此便是當事人必須承擔的用證據證明指控或斷言的真實性的責任;廣義上講,也等同burden of persuasion[1]。而burden of production 則是“證明責任”的一部分,為“舉證責任”, 指當事人必須就訴爭問題提供充足證據以供事實裁定人作出正確裁決[2],其也稱為 burden of going forward with evidence, burden of producing evidence, production burden 或 degree of proof。而 burden of persuasion也是“證明責任”的一部分,其為“說服責任”,指當事人應說服事實裁定人相信自己所舉事實的責任[3],也稱為 persuasion burden,risk of non-persuasion,risk of jury doubt ;廣義上講,也可等于burden of proof。
 
[1]“A party's duty to prove a disputed assertion or charge. The burden of proof includes both the burden of persuasion and the burden of production. ”Cf. Bryan A. Gamer, Black's Law Dictionary,7th edition, at p. 190,West Group (1999).
[2]“The requirement that a party to a case introduce evidence to support a claim or defense in order to have that issue considered by the judge or jury. ”Cf. James E. Clapp, Random House Webster's Dictionary of the Law, at p. 64, Random House, New York(2000).
[3]“A party's duty to convince the fact-finder to view the facts in a way that favors that party. In civil cases,the plaintiff's burden is usu. by a preponderance of the evidence, while in criminal cases the prosecution's burden is beyond a reasonable doubt. ”Cf. Bryan A. Gamer, Black's Law Dictionary, 7th edition, at p. 190,West Group (1999).



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